This ambiguity is caused in part by the group nature of such productions: even if you identify a writer, producer, or director, a group performance never has the single authorship of a written text or image. What someone says may be useful as a source of opinion, but can seldom be relied on as definitive information, unless you’re speaking with a recognized expert.
See the discussion of film and video for discussion of a similar example. And even in these cases, the informality of conversation makes most people much less careful about checking facts and conclusions, rendering the information less authoritative. But some discussions will be relevant to ideas you’re developing (especially class discussions), and some of the people you talk to will have useful knowledge of the topics at hand.
For unpublished material that is not housed in a public collection, each of the three citation styles has different conventions. #.] [speaker last name, shortened title.] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] A solo performance or a lecture is cited by the performer’s name.
MLA style allows you to list unpublished material even if it’s not housed publicly; add “Author’s private collection” at the end of your listing. Include a title, if any, or a short descriptive word to identify the format.
Then list the title and the rest of the information described above. For programs accessed on the internet, MLA style ends the citation with the sponsoring site, the word “Web,” and date of access (e.g. This is especially true of MLA style, which will be more common in courses where you analyze these programs. But because academic essays may focus on very different aspects of a music or sound recording, citation conventions can vary.